Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitor Published References
The following publications comprise a fairly complete bibliography concerning
the NALM, up to 1995, compiled by George
W. Hart. I am no longer maintaining it.
Abbott, R.E., S.C. Hadden, and H.M. Kitching, Requirements for an Advanced
Utility Load Monitoring System, EPRI Report #CU-6623, Dec., 1989.
Abbott, R.E. and S.C. Hadden, Product Specification for a Nonintrusive
Appliance Load Monitoring System, EPRI Report #NI-101, August, 1990.
Almeida, A. and E. Vine, ``Advanced Monitoring Technologies for the Evaluation
of Demand-side Management Programs," IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter
Andrews, C.J., ``Nonintrusive Monitoring Device for Electric Loads in Commercial
Buildings," MIT Laboratory for Electrical and Electromagnetic Systems Technical
Bons, M., Y. Deville, and D. Schang, ``Nonintrusive Monitoring of Appliance
Load Curves," IERE Workshop on `New Issues in Metering and Communication,"
Clamart France, Sept., 1994.
Brown, D. Identification of Appliances in Residential Electricity Consumption,
M.I.T. Dept. EE/CS BS Thesis, January 1983.
Carmichael, L., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System,"
Journal, September 1990, pp. 45-47.
Editor, ``Meter sorts load for appliance use," Electrical World,April
1986, p. 75.
E.P.R.I., ``Non-Intrusive Load Monitor: an unobtrusive system for monitoring
household end-use electricity patterns," E.P.R.I. brochure #CU2025.
Hart, G.W., ``Three Approaches to Nonintrusive Monitoring of Continuously-Variable
Loads,'' New Issues in End-Use Measurements Workshop, Vancouver, British
Columbia, Oct. 1994.
Hart, G.W., ``Automatic Construction of Finite-State Load Behavior Models,"
Proceedings of Fourth International Symposium on Distribution Automation
and Demand-Side Management, Orlando, Florida, Jan. 18-19, 1994. (Printed
without figures, due to editorial error.)
Hart, G.W., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring," Proceedings of
the IEEE, December 1992, pp. 1870-1891.
Hart, G.W., Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring with Finite-State
Appliance Models, Technical Report submitted to EPRI, January,1992.
Includes as its three chapters the drafts of Hart, 1992, Hart and Wang,
1992, and Hart and Bouloutas 1993.
Hart, G.W., ``Advances in Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring," Proceedings
of EPRI Information and Automation Conference, 1991.
Hart, G.W., ``Residential Energy Monitoring and Computerized Surveillance
Via Utility Power Flows,'' IEEE Technology and Society, pp. 12-16,
Hart, G.W., Minimum Information Estimation of Structure, M.I.T.
Dept. EE/CS Ph.D. Dissertation, and Laboratory for Information and Decision
Systems Tech. Rept. #1664, June 1987.
Hart, G.W., Identification of Multi-State Appliances, MIT Laboratory
for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems Technical Report TR-87-012,
Hart, G.W., A Method for Estimating the Operating History of a Known
Appliance Given Slightly Imperfect Data, MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic
and Electronic Systems Technical Report, August 1987.
Hart, G.W., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Data Acquisition,'' in Proceedings:
International Load Management Conference, Section 40, and Electric
Power Research Institute Technical Report #EM-4643, 1985.
Hart, G.W., Prototype Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitor, MIT Energy
Laboratory Technical Report, and Electric Power Research Institute Technical
Report, September 1985.
Hart, G.W., The Digital AC Monitor, MIT Energy Laboratory Technical
Report, August 1985.
Hart, G.W., Nonintrusive Appliance Load Data Acquisition Method,
MIT Energy Laboratory Technical Report, September 1984.
Hart, G. and A. Bouloutas, ``Correcting Dependent Errors in Sequences Generated
by Finite-state Processes," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,
July 1993, pp. 1249-1260.
Hart, G.W., and J. Wang, ``Determining the Structure of Finite-State Appliances,''
included as Chapter 2 of Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring with
Finite-State Appliance Models, 1992.
Hart, G.W., E. Kern, and F. Schweppe, Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitor,
U.S. Patent #4,858,141.
Hart, G.W., and E. Kern, Digital AC Monitor, U.S. Patent #4,672,555.
Jones, R.H., and D.P. Flagg, ``Preliminary Qualification Testing of EPRI's
Non-Intrusive Load Monitor,'' in Information and Automation Technology
Serving Electric Utility Customers in the 1990's: Conference Proceedings,
EPRI Report #CU-6400, June 1989.
Kern, E, ``Appliance Signatures," Load Research Symposium, Chicago, June
Leeb, S.B., A Conjoint Pattern Recognition Approach to Nonintrusive
Load Monitoring, MIT Dept. EE/CS Ph.D. Thesis, 1993.
Leeb, S.B., J. Kirtley, G. Verghese, L. Norford, and R. Tabors, ``Nonintrusive
Load Monitoring: Status Report," MIT LEES Technical Report #TR92-005, May
Leeb, S.B., S.R. Shaw, and J. Kirtley, ``Transient Event Detection in Spectral
Envelope Estimates for Nonintrusive Load Monitoring," IEEE 95WM042-2PWRD,
Winter Power Meeting, 1995.
Little, R.D., Electrical Power Disaggregation in Commercial Buildings
with Applications to a Non-Intrusive Load Monitor, MIT Dept. Mech.
Engr. MS thesis, 1991.
Norford, L.K., Hinteregger, P., Little, R., and Mabey, N., ``Applications
of Non-Intrusive Electrical Load Monitoring in Commercial Buildings,''
MIT Building Technology Program, Dept. Architecture, Report, Dec. 1992.
Norford, L.K., ``Non-Intrusive Electric Load Monitoring in Commercial Buildings,"
Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, 1992, pp. 133-140.
Norford, L. and S. Leeb, ``Nonintrusive Electrical Load Monitoring," draft,
Norford, L. K. and R. D. Tabors, "Non-Intrusive Electrical Load Monitoring,
a Technique for Reduced-Cost Load Research and Energy Management." Commercial
Performance: Analysis and Measurement, Proceedings of the ACEEE 1992 Summer
Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Volume 3, American Council for
an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C., 1992, pp. 3.187-3.198.
Plexus Research Inc., The NIALMS Report, occasional newsletter,
289 Great Rd., Acton, MA, 01720.
Rouvellou, I., and G.W. Hart, ``Inference of a Probabilistic Finite-State
Machine from its Output," to appear in IEEE-TR-SMC, 1995.
Sharp, T. R., "Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Systems: Considerations for
Use and Potential Applications," Demand and Load Shapes---Proceedings of
the ACEEE 1994 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Volume 2,
American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C., 1994,
Sharp, T. R., "Development and Application of a High-Speed, High-Resolution
Data Acquisition System for Monitoring Power at the Service Entrance to
Buildings," ORNL/TM-12921 (Draft), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, February,
Siwko, J. Identification Algorithm for the Nonintrusive Appliance Load
Monitor, M.I.T. Dept. EE/CS BS Thesis, 1986.
Sultanem, F., ``Using Appliance Signatures for Monitoring Residential Loads
at Meter Panel Level,'' IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting,
Tabors, R. et al, MIT Final Report: Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring,