Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitor Published References
The following publications comprise a fairly complete bibliography
concerning the NALM, up to 1995, compiled
by George W. Hart. I am no longer
- Abbott, R.E., S.C. Hadden, and H.M. Kitching, Requirements
for an Advanced Utility Load Monitoring System, EPRI
Report #CU-6623, Dec., 1989.
- Abbott, R.E. and S.C. Hadden, Product Specification for a
Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System, EPRI Report
#NI-101, August, 1990.
- Almeida, A. and E. Vine, ``Advanced Monitoring Technologies
for the Evaluation of Demand-side Management Programs," IEEE
Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 1994
- Andrews, C.J., ``Nonintrusive Monitoring Device for Electric
Loads in Commercial Buildings," MIT Laboratory for Electrical
and Electromagnetic Systems Technical Report, 1988.
- Bons, M., Y. Deville, and D. Schang, ``Nonintrusive
Monitoring of Appliance Load Curves," IERE Workshop on `New
Issues in Metering and Communication," Clamart France, Sept.,
- Brown, D. Identification of Appliances in Residential
Electricity Consumption, M.I.T. Dept. EE/CS BS Thesis,
- Carmichael, L., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring
System," EPRI Journal, September 1990, pp. 45-47.
- Editor, ``Meter sorts load for appliance use," Electrical
World,April 1986, p. 75.
- E.P.R.I., ``Non-Intrusive Load Monitor: an unobtrusive system
for monitoring household end-use electricity patterns," E.P.R.I.
- Hart, G.W., ``Three Approaches to Nonintrusive Monitoring of
Continuously-Variable Loads,'' New Issues in End-Use
Measurements Workshop, Vancouver, British Columbia, Oct. 1994.
- Hart, G.W., ``Automatic Construction of Finite-State Load
Behavior Models," Proceedings of Fourth International Symposium
on Distribution Automation and Demand-Side Management, Orlando,
Florida, Jan. 18-19, 1994. (Printed without figures, due to
- Hart, G.W., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring," Proceedings
of the IEEE, December 1992, pp. 1870-1891.
- Hart, G.W., Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring with
Finite-State Appliance Models, Technical Report submitted
to EPRI, January,1992. Includes as its three chapters the drafts
of Hart, 1992, Hart and Wang, 1992, and Hart and Bouloutas 1993.
- Hart, G.W., ``Advances in Nonintrusive Appliance Load
Monitoring," Proceedings of EPRI Information and Automation
- Hart, G.W., ``Residential Energy Monitoring and Computerized
Surveillance Via Utility Power Flows,'' IEEE Technology and
Society, pp. 12-16, June 1989.
- Hart, G.W., Minimum Information Estimation of Structure,
M.I.T. Dept. EE/CS Ph.D. Dissertation, and Laboratory for
Information and Decision Systems Tech. Rept. #1664, June 1987.
- Hart, G.W., Identification of Multi-State Appliances,
MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems
Technical Report TR-87-012, July 1987.
- Hart, G.W., A Method for Estimating the Operating History
of a Known Appliance Given Slightly Imperfect Data, MIT
Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems Technical
Report, August 1987.
- Hart, G.W., ``Nonintrusive Appliance Load Data Acquisition,''
in Proceedings: International Load Management Conference,
Section 40, and Electric Power Research Institute Technical
Report #EM-4643, 1985.
- Hart, G.W., Prototype Nonintrusive Appliance Load
Monitor, MIT Energy Laboratory Technical Report, and
Electric Power Research Institute Technical Report, September
1985, online copy.
- Hart, G.W., The Digital AC Monitor, MIT Energy
Laboratory Technical Report, August 1985.
- Hart, G.W., Nonintrusive Appliance Load Data Acquisition
Method, MIT Energy Laboratory Technical Report, September
- Hart, G. and A. Bouloutas, ``Correcting Dependent Errors in
Sequences Generated by Finite-state Processes," IEEE
Transactions on Information Theory, July 1993, pp.
- Hart, G.W., and J. Wang, ``Determining the Structure of
Finite-State Appliances,'' included as Chapter 2 of Nonintrusive
Appliance Load Monitoring with Finite-State Appliance Models,
- Hart, G.W., E. Kern, and F. Schweppe, Nonintrusive
Appliance Load Monitor, U.S. Patent #4,858,141.
- Hart, G.W., and E. Kern, Digital AC Monitor, U.S.
- Jones, R.H., and D.P. Flagg, ``Preliminary Qualification
Testing of EPRI's Non-Intrusive Load Monitor,'' in Information
and Automation Technology Serving Electric Utility Customers
in the 1990's: Conference Proceedings, EPRI Report
#CU-6400, June 1989.
- Kern, E, ``Appliance Signatures," Load Research Symposium,
Chicago, June 1983.
- Leeb, S.B., A Conjoint Pattern Recognition Approach to
Nonintrusive Load Monitoring, MIT Dept. EE/CS Ph.D.
- Leeb, S.B., J. Kirtley, G. Verghese, L. Norford, and R.
Tabors, ``Nonintrusive Load Monitoring: Status Report," MIT LEES
Technical Report #TR92-005, May 1992.
- Leeb, S.B., S.R. Shaw, and J. Kirtley, ``Transient Event
Detection in Spectral Envelope Estimates for Nonintrusive Load
Monitoring," IEEE 95WM042-2PWRD, Winter Power Meeting, 1995.
- Little, R.D., Electrical Power Disaggregation in
Commercial Buildings with Applications to a Non-Intrusive Load
Monitor, MIT Dept. Mech. Engr. MS thesis, 1991.
- Norford, L.K., Hinteregger, P., Little, R., and Mabey, N.,
``Applications of Non-Intrusive Electrical Load Monitoring in
Commercial Buildings,'' MIT Building Technology Program, Dept.
Architecture, Report, Dec. 1992.
- Norford, L.K., ``Non-Intrusive Electric Load Monitoring in
Commercial Buildings," Symposium on Improving Building Systems
in Hot and Humid Climates, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX, 1992, pp. 133-140.
- Norford, L. and S. Leeb, ``Nonintrusive Electrical Load
Monitoring," draft, 1993.
- Norford, L. K. and R. D. Tabors, "Non-Intrusive Electrical
Load Monitoring, a Technique for Reduced-Cost Load Research and
Energy Management." Commercial Performance: Analysis and
Measurement, Proceedings of the ACEEE 1992 Summer Study on
Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Volume 3, American Council for
an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C., 1992, pp.
- Plexus Research Inc., The NIALMS Report, occasional
newsletter, 289 Great Rd., Acton, MA, 01720.
- Rouvellou, I., and G.W. Hart, ``Inference of a Probabilistic
Finite-State Machine from its Output," to appear in IEEE-TR-SMC,
- Sharp, T. R., "Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Systems:
Considerations for Use and Potential Applications," Demand and
Load Shapes---Proceedings of the ACEEE 1994 Summer Study on
Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Volume 2, American Council for
an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C., 1994, pp.
- Sharp, T. R., "Development and Application of a High-Speed,
High-Resolution Data Acquisition System for Monitoring Power at
the Service Entrance to Buildings," ORNL/TM-12921 (Draft), Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, February, 1995.
- Siwko, J. Identification Algorithm for the Nonintrusive
Appliance Load Monitor, M.I.T. Dept. EE/CS BS Thesis,
- Sultanem, F., ``Using Appliance Signatures for Monitoring
Residential Loads at Meter Panel Level,'' IEEE Power Engineering
Society Winter Meeting, 1991.
- Tabors, R. et al, MIT Final Report: Non-Intrusive
Appliance Load Monitoring, draft.